Thursday, November 22, 2007
Monday, November 5, 2007
apt-get upgrade -- upgrades all installed packages. This is the equivalent of “mark all upgrades” and “apply” in Synaptic in one step.
apt-get dist-upgrade - upgrades the entire system to a newer release. The same as the above, except add the “smart upgrade” checkbox -- i.e. tell APT to do whatever it has to do to upgrade to the latest packages, even if it means removing some other packages. (NB this is not a recommended way of upgrading to a new release)
apt-get -f install -- the same as “Edit->Fix Broken Packages” and “Apply” in synaptic. Do this if you get complaints about packages with “unmet dependences”.
apt-get autoclean - Run this periodically to clean out .deb archives from packages which are no longer installed on the system. You can regain lots of disk space that way. If you're really desperate for disk space, apt-get clean is more radical, and will remove .deb files even for packages currently installed. But most of the time you probably don't need the .debs any more, so it might be worth it if you're strapped for megabytes.
apt-get clean -- the same as above, excecpt remove *all* packages from the package cache. Usually you don’t need them, so this is smart if you’re running low on disk space. If you’re on dial-up, you might reconsider.
The package cache is in /var/cache/apt/archives, so "du -sh /var/cache/apt/archives" will tell you how much space cached packages are taking up.
dpkg-reconfigure foo -- reconfigure package ”foo“. You really want to know this one. With many packages, you’ll be prompted with some configuration questions you may not have known were there. For example: dpkg-reconfigure fontconfig-config will present present you with a ”wizard“ on configuring fonts in Ubuntu. I run this one on every Ubuntu install I do, because I want to make bitmapped fonts available to all my apps.
dpkg-reconfigure, like the name says, is for *reconfiguring* packages -- if you’ve installed a package that’s asked you questions, and you’d like to change some of those answers, this is what you’re looking for.
echo "foo hold" | dpkg --set-selectons -- place package "foo" on hold, i.e. don't upgrade this package, even if it means holding back loads of upgrades that depend on the upgraded version. This is the same as Synaptic's "Package->Lock Version"
Note that apt-get dist-upgrade will override this, but will warn you first. Also, if you want to use this with sudo, you need 'echo "foo hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections' and not 'sudo echo "foo hold" | dpkg --set-selections'.
echo "foo install" -- remove the "hold" or "locked package" state set above. The same thing with sudo applies, i.e. it's 'echo "foo install" | sudo dpkg --set-selections'
ref : ubuntu forum
apt-get install packagename - installs a new package (but see aptitude, below)
aptitude - Curses viewer of packages installed or available. Aptitude can be used from the command-line in a similar way to apt-get, but only for some commands - install and remove being the most common. However, because aptitude keeps track of more information than apt-get does, it can be considered better at install and remove operations.
ref: ubuntu forum
Thursday, October 18, 2007
The second edition of this popular book includes brand new coverage of Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 1.1, new CSS Solutions, and greatly expanded coverage of popular, cross-browser, CSS layout techniques.
Download from "http://ebooklibrary.orgfree.com"
Wednesday, October 10, 2007
Saturday, October 6, 2007
You may configure the SAMBA server by editing the
/etc/samba/smb.conf file to change the default settings or add new settings. More information about each setting is available in the comments of the
/etc/samba/smb.conf file or by viewing the
/etc/samba/smb.conf manual page from the prompt with the following command typed at a terminal prompt:
Prior to editing the configuration file, you should make a copy of the original file and protect it from writing so you will have the original settings as a reference and to re-use as necessary.
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.original
Now, edit the
/etc/samba/smb.conf file and make your changes.
arvind@lovely:gcc-4.1 try.c -o try.out
try.c:1:18: error: stdio.h: No such file or directory
try.c:2:22: error: sys/types.h: No such file or directory
try.c: In function ‘main’:
try.c:5: warning: incompatible implicit declaration of built-in function ‘printf’
So what kind of unix comes with make and a compiler, but none of the required dev libraries and headers required to make any normal C program work? Well a brief google yielded the following solution.. Yup, you guessed it.. you need to install a dev package:
sudo apt-get install build-essential
E: Could not get lock /var/lib/apt/lists/lock - open (11 Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the list directory
on updating or anything like arvind@lovely:~$ sudo apt-get update
then do the following
1-) sudo chmod 777 /var/lib/apt/lists/
then delete or cut and paste the lock file in another place and then try
2-) sudo apt-get update
there will error free updating or any processing...........
Friday, October 5, 2007
Thursday, October 4, 2007
|apropos||Search information about a command or subject.|
|cat||Show content of one or more files.|
|cd||Change into another directory.|
|exit||Leave a shell session.|
|file||Get information about the content of a file.|
|info||Read Info pages about a command.|
|logout||Leave a shell session.|
|ls||List directory content.|
|man||Read manual pages of a command.|
|passwd||Change your password.|
|pwd||Display the current working directory.|
Tuesday, October 2, 2007
TELNET (TELetype NETwork) is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area network LAN connections.
Telnet in is insecure protocol and it is recommended that you use ssh server. But some time you really need telnet then first install telnet server as according to version of Linux distribution.
Telnet server installation
Debain/Ubuntu Linux user type the following command:
# apt-get install telnetd
$ sudo apt-get install telnetdFedora Linux user the following command:
# yum install telnet-server telnetRed Hat enterprise Linux user type the following command:
up2date telnet-server telnetFreeBSD user type the following command:
No need to install new (telnet server) package, it is installed by default (/usr/libexec/telnetd)
Configure telnet server (turn on telnet server)
Again each distribution has its own method to turn on or off telnet service; same applies to telnet UNIX/Linux server.
If you are using Red Hat / Fedora Linux
The configuration file for telnet is /etc/xinetd.d/telnet. To enable telnet server you need to open this file and make sure disable = no read as disable = yes.
# chkconfig telnet onTo start telnet server type command:
# /etc/init.d/xinetd restartIf you are using Debian Linux
The configuration file for telnet is /etc/inetd.conf. By default it is enabled when you install telnet server. To start telnet server type command:
# /etc/init.d/inetd restartIf you are using FreeBSD
The configuration file for telnet is /etc/inetd.conf. Open file using vi text editor and uncomment line:
# vi /etc/inetd.conf
Make sure commented line:
#telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/telnetd telnetdRead as follows:
telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/telnetd telnetdSave and close the file. Start telnet service:
Enable inetd service so that telnet get loaded:
# vi /etc/rc.confAppend/add following line to configuration file:
inetd_enable="YES"Save and close the file, Rsstart telnet via inetd service:
# /etc/rc.d/inetd restart
Telnet to server (How do I use telnet client?)
You should now be able to telnet to the server from Windows or Linux desktop system. Type the following command to connect to Telnet server:telnet server-ip-address
Monday, October 1, 2007
you can search the required application by : sudo apt-cache search apache
and then install the package as : sudo apt-get install package name;
sudo apt-get install apache2
and also install these for running php : sudo aptitude install php5
sudo aptitude install libapache2-mod-php5
and for mysql use : sudo apt-get install phpMyAdmin
to restart the apache server : sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
and your www directory will be at : /var/www
and at default : http://localhost/apache2-default
and to run phpmyadmin : http://localhost/phpmyadmin
Sunday, September 30, 2007
then copy and paste the .exe file with additional file in a folder and do
wine path of the file with filename.exe in terminal
if error like
E: dpkg was interrupted, you must manually run 'dpkg --configure -a'
to correct the problem.
during installation configure dpkg as : sudo dpkg --configure -a
and then sudo apt-get update
Howto resolve the lock in aptitude issue?
sudo aptitude update
if error like:
E: Could not get lock /var/lib/apt/lists/lock - open (11 Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Couldn't lock list directory..are you root?
then try the folowing:
1.sudo killall aptitude synaptic update-manager
2. sudo lsof /var/lib/apt/lists/lock
3. sudo apt-get clean
if synaptic is broken then do : sudo apt-get install -f
it will install the queue packages and then synaptic works
or by command line in terminal :
sudo apt-get install package name
sudo aptitude install package name
Saturday, September 29, 2007
1. You need to use the ‘a’ option to see the processes by all users and the ‘x’ option to show all of the processes outside of the scope of the shell.
sudo ps -ax
2. If you just run that command as is, the results will just scroll by. In order see and browse the results at you own pace you can pipe the list into ‘less’.
sudo ps -ax | less
3.Or if you want to search for a particular application process, instead of piping in ‘less’ you can pipe the results into grep.
sudo ps -ax | grep search
For example I can find the process id of Firefox by doing something like this:
sudo ps -ax | grep firefox
3399 ?? S 3:30.90 /Ap ... OS/firefox-bin -ps ...
3456 p1 S+ 0:00.00 grep firefox
To kill the process :
sudo kill processId
sudo kill 3399
and be hang free...........
there are various method like you can install samba package by command
sudo apt-get install samba
and configure it in of its .config file
or simply by path follow : System->Administartion->Share Folder
it will ask for root password and after it ,it will install all the packages and configuration made
type the command to install ntfs-config in your terminal
sudo apt-get install ntfs-config
if any problem you get during installation, plz update your system by command
sudo apt-get update
then your system will sure install ntfs-config after updating it
Ufter installation go to : Applications->System tools->NTFS configuration tools
and select the two check box
you will finally able to read and write from linux system to windows partition...
Friday, September 28, 2007
just know the following commands for initial phase:
open your terminal by going : Applications->Accessories->Terminal
and type the command you want .. ...
1. after you install your ubuntu update it using the command : sudo apt-get update
2. to search any packages just type the command : sudo apt-cache search package name
*package name like what you want to search just give the name.
3. to install the packages you search type : sudo apt-get install package name
* package name you got from search command.
4. to remove the package : sudo apt-get remove package name
i will post you other command keep in touch............
i know at initioal phase you may be quite hopeless using ubuntu but after only 1 week
linux will be a gd friend of u. so start to use ubuntu bcz it has many features and i know we all know this.
i hope you are going to install ubuntu today and certainly linux will be your gd friend so get enjoying with linux...................